Further publication about Kriegsmarine U-boats after May 1945
Recently, our British friend Derek Waller has published another result of his research of the fate of Kriegsmarine U-boats post- May 1945, which surrendered still being operational to the victorious Allies. In his new some 119 paras long article he focuses this time at the amazing story of tests and trials after May 1945, which were executed by the Royal Navy examining some German U-boats under its control. In doing so, he has managed to find out many details unknown so far, thereby contributing a final, most interesting chapter to many data sheets of German U-boats. Again, we are most grateful to Derek Waller, as he enables the U-boat Archive to amend numerous files and documents of German U-boats in its shelves. The article by Derek Waller can be read via Internet since mid-August
2011 at the homepage of our friends from www.uboat.net.
Chinese Submarines for Pakistan
In late June 2011, the Indian Periodical “National Security and Defence Magazine” reported about the transfer of the First of Class Type “Qing” SSK from the China State Building Industrial Corporation (CSIC) at Wuhan to Shanghai, to resume approximately a year-long sea trials including the launch of three “CJ-10K” cruise missiles with a range of 1.500 km, which are capable to carry nuclear warheads.
The Type “Qing” submarines are a further development of the Chinese Type 041A “Yuhan” SSK, which again has great resemblance to the Russian Type “636 Warschawjanka” SSK (NATO Code: “Kilo II”). The Russian export submarine of the Kilo-Class (India has acquired meanwhile 9 units of those) has a length of 74 mtr, a width of 10 mtr, a draughts of 6.6 mtr and a displacement of 2.350 to surfaced and 3.126 to submerged. Their operational diving depth is about 300 mtr and their crew is composed of 60 men. The armament is provided by 6 torpedo tubes, wherefrom torpedoes and cruise missiles can be launched.
The first Type “Qing” submarine of four on order for China´s Peoples´ Navy was launched on 09th of September 2010 at Wuhan. The double hull boats of the “Qing”-Class are to have a displacement of some 3.600 to submerged, and are to have an air independent propulsion system based on the Sterling motor, which was developed in China since 1996.
The magazine further reports, that in April 2011 a contract was signed between CSIC and Pakistan on the construction of a total of 6 Type “Qing” SSK for the Pakistan Navy. In light of the addition of these submarines to its Navy being able to launch cruise missiles with nuclear warheads, the paper speculates, that Pakistan might pursue the further build up of its nuclear triade.
Brasil on track for first own nuclear submarine
Referring to the US news agency “Global Post”, British newspaper “Daily Mail” reports in July 2011 about the development of new submarines for the Brazilian Navy, which are to include the construction of nuclear sub-marines. On 16th of July 2011, the Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff declared Brazil to have the technology for the construction of nuclear submarines. Brazil maintains an efficient national nuclear research capability and operates two nuclear power plants for years, the construction of a third such power plant nearby Rio is underway.
In compliance with an armaments plan derived from a “strategic military partnership” agreed in 2008 between French President Nicolas Sarkozy and the then Brazilian President Luiz Inacio da Silva initially some 5 new submarines are to be designed and built. The first of four type “Scorpéne” conventional submarines (MESMA air independent propulsion system, displacement approx. 2,000 t submerged, length of 75 m, beam of 6.2 m, speed 12 kn surfaced and up to 20 kn submerged, range of 6,000 nmi, operational diving depth of 300 m, 6 torpedo tubes, crew of 31 men), which has been developed jointly by France and Spain for mere export purposes, with 2 already operated by Chile and further 2 under construction for Malaysia, has seen keel laying on 27 May 2010 at the Itaguai Construcoes Navais shipyard at Rio. Nevertheless, the front part of the pressure hull of the First of Class submarine will be built by DCNS at Cherbourg, France. The four submarines are scheduled for commissioning between 2017 and 2021. However, the fifth submarine of the new armaments program is to be for a first time a nuclear propelled boat and shall also be constructed at the Itaguai Construcoes Navais shipyard at Rio, but in close cooperation with the French state owned DCNS. Its commissioning is not expected to be before 2023. Costs per conventional unit are quoted to be some 415 Mio. Euros (550 Mio. USD), the nuclear version would cost well above 1 Bill. Euros. Experts estimate that the nuclear submarine will follow the design of the French “Rubis”-Class SSN and will receive a reactor built in Brazil.
If these plans materialize, Brazil will be the 7th Navy in the world operating nuclear submarines.
The media further tell of an ambitious submarine construction program by Brazil, which shall comprise eventually some 20 conventional boats (15 newly built plus 5 modernized types “Tupi” and “Tikuna”) and 6 more SSN.
For decades the Brazilian Navy has submarines in its inventory, currently some 5 conventional boats, of whom are 4 units of the type “Tupi” (German export submarine Type 209) acquired between 1989 and 1999, plus a 5th type “Tikuna” boat, that was built in Brazil based on the type 209 and commissioned in 2006.
Israel to receive a sixth type “Dolphin” submarine?
German newsmagazine “Spiegel” reports in July 2011 about a German financial support for a sixth type “Dolphin” submarine for the Navy of Israel. According to the article Germany is to provide a total of 135 Mio. Euros subsidies in the next four years to enable this armaments project, the German detailed budget plan 60 (“General Authorizations”) for 2012 has marked such specific spending.
In the wake of the first Gulf war, initially 2 Dieselelectic-powered submarines of the export type 209 were donated by Germany to the Navy of Israel, the order was placed in 1991, the construction was executed at HDW at Kiel, Germany, and the commissioning of the “Dolphin” and the “Livyathan” followed in 1999. In 1994 a 3rd submarine of this type was ordered and subsidized by Germany by one third of the cost (Total building costs per boat some 225 Mio. Euros). The boat was constructed again at HDW and commissioned as “Tekumah” in 2000. In 2005 order was placed for another 2 submarines following the same financial scheme to carry a third of the total costs, this time, however, some 500 Mio. Euros. These submarines constructed by HDW will have an air independent propulsion system and are scheduled for commissioning in 2012, respectively 2013.
The type “Dolphin” submarines have a displacement of 1,640 t surfaced and 1,900 t submerged, length is 58 m, beam 6,8 m, the speed is about 11 kn surfaced and up to 20 kn submerged, the crew is 35. The boats have 6 torpedo tubes, from where not only torpedoes can be delivered but also cruise missiles, whose war heads – given Israels nuclear capabilities, although never been officially confirmed – might be even nuclear.
- SPIEGEL Online
- Jerusalem Post